temiz su, başarılı işkembe gelişimi için kritiktir

Water, Water Everywhere…

Jim Quigley
May 9, 2021

Fresh, clean water is critical to successful rumen development. An important part of the calf’s development is the ability of the rumen to ferment the concentrate and forage that it eats. This is termed rumen development, and is necessary before the calf can be weaned successfully. Fermentation of feeds in the rumen produces volatile fatty acids (VFA).

These acids cause dramatic changes in the size and activity of the rumen, and prepare the calf for weaning. Unless the calf consumes sufficient dry feed within the first few weeks of life, weaning will be delayed, or unsuccessful.

Rumen bacteria are responsible for fermentation of calf starter and grain to VFA in the rumen. To ferment substrate, these rumen bacteria must live in a water environment.

Without sufficient water, bacteria cannot grow

and ruminal development is slowed. Here’s where this affects producers directly – most water that enters the rumen comes from free water intake. If water is offered to calves from an early age, this is not usually a problem; calves will drink enough water for the rumen bacteria and to quench their thirst. Unfortunately, many producers in the do not provide free water to their calves until calves reach 4 or more weeks of age.

Milk or milk replacer does not constitute “free water”. When milk or milk replacer is fed to calves, it bypasses the rumen and reticulum by the action of the esophageal groove. The esophageal groove is active in the calf until about 12 weeks of age. The groove closes in response to nervous stimulation, shunting milk past the reticulum and rumen and into the abomasum. Closure of the groove occurs whether calves are fed from buckets or bottles. Therefore, the feeding of milk replacer should not be construed as providing “enough water”. Calves need fresh, clean water from as early as 3 days of age.

Offering water in the winter can be a significant challenge in many northern states. However, calves still need water, even when it is cold. Even in cold winter climates, water is important.

Actually, water is especially important in the winter, to allow the calf to “get onto” dry feed sooner so that it can obtain additional energy and protein from the starter and hay.

Sometimes, it may be necessary to bring warm water at an additional feeding to ensure that calves have enough liquid water available. Some producers have success by feeding warm water for about an hour after morning and afternoon feedings and at noon time. After about an hour the water is removed to keep it from freezing.

Free water intake has been shown to increase body weight gain, starter intake, and reduce scours scores (Figure 2). When water was available, calves consumed more calf starter, grew faster, and scoured fewer days.

Offering water is easy to do, simple, and can have immediate impact on your operation. If you’re not offering free water to your calves from 3 days of age, it’s time to do so.


Ucuz Yemin Gizli Maliyeti 

Kaliteli inek yemine yatırım yapmak, hayvanlarınızın sağlığı ve verimliliği açısından son derece önemlidir. Düşük fiyatlı seçenekler cazip görünse de, genellikle gerekli besin maddelerini eksik tutar ve zayıf büyümeye, yetersiz süt üretimine ve genel olarak sağlık sorunlarına neden olabilir.

Üstün kaliteli yemler, daha yüksek maliyetlerine rağmen, optimal büyümeyi ve bağışıklığı destekleyen dengeli bir protein, mineral ve vitamin karışımını içerir. Fiyat yerine kaliteye öncelik vererek, ineklerinizin uzun vadeli karlılık ve refahlarını koruyarak, maksimum süt üretimi ve genel performans açısından en iyi sonuçları elde etmiş olursunuz.

Sürünüzün sağlığını düzenli olarak izleyin ve değerlendirin, rutin veteriner kontrolleri ve aşılar dahil…

İneklerin beslenme ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak için dengeli bir diyet sağlayın, yeterli yem, konsantre, mineral ve su sağlayın.

Süt üretimini etkileyebilecek beslenme eksiklikleri veya aşırılıklarını önlemek için uygun bir yemleme yönetim planı uygulayın.


Ucuz ve düşük kaliteli yem, bitki, tahıl, protein kaynakları, mineraller & vitaminler ve yağ alımdan kaçının. Eğer düşük kaliteli yeme 50 TL harcarsanız ve sadece günlük 40 litre süt üretiyorsanız, litre başına maliyetiniz 1,25 TL’ye yükselir. Daha fazla harcama yapıyor ve daha az alıyorsunuz!


Nutrition is key in dairy farming. The health and productivity of your cows directly depend on their diet. Proper nutrition leads to high milk yield and healthier cows that are resistant to diseases.

Cheap is Expensive

Now, let’s think about this in terms of cow feed.

You could buy a bag of cheaper feed for 50 TL. But because it’s not packed full of the good stuff your cows need, they only produce 40 liters of milk each day. In a week, you get 280 liters of milk.

But what if you go for the second option? You buy the higher-quality feed for 75 TL. It’s more expensive, but it’s better for your cows and they start to produce more milk. In this case, they give you 60 liters per day. So, over a week, you get 420 liters of milk.

Yes, you are paying 25 TL more for the feed, but you are also getting an extra 140 liters of milk each week. If you sell this milk for even just 1 TL per liter, you get an extra 140 TL. After taking out the 25 TL for the better feed, you’re still making an additional 115 TL every week.

One significant study is the “Feeding Dairy Cows for Increased Milk Production” conducted by the Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. According to this research, it’s demonstrated that the quality of feed significantly affects the milk yield of dairy cows. High-quality feed that is rich in nutrients helps enhance the cows’ milk production, whereas low-quality feed can result in decreased milk yield.

Regularly monitor and evaluate the health of your dairy herd, including routine veterinary check-ups and vaccinations.

Provide a balanced diet to meet the nutritional needs of the cows, ensuring sufficient forage, concentrates, minerals, and water.

Implement a proper feeding management plan to prevent nutritional deficiencies or excesses that could impact milk production.


Avoid buying cheap, low-quality ingredients. If you spend $50 on low-quality feed and only produce 40 liters of milk per day, your cost per liter rises to $1.25. You’d be spending more and getting less!


Nutrition is key in dairy farming. The health and productivity of your cows directly depend on their diet. Proper nutrition leads to high milk yield and healthier cows that are resistant to diseases.

Adopt Cost-efficient Practices

Imagine switching from an old, inefficient lightbulb that costs 75 TL per month to run, to a new energy-efficient one that only costs 37.5 TL per month. This kind of upgrade can save dairy farmers money, too, like investing in energy-efficient machinery.

Invest in Energy-Efficient Equipment: If you have an old piece of machinery that costs 2,000 TL per month to run, replacing it with a newer, energy-efficient model that costs only 1,500 TL per month could save you 6,000 TL in a year.

Implement Waste Management Practices: Manure and other waste products can be used as fertilizers or converted into biogas. This not only reduces waste but can also save you money or even generate income.

Optimize Feed Usage: By precisely measuring and delivering feed, you can reduce waste and ensure your cows are getting the nutrients they need without overspending. This could save you several thousand TL over the course of a year.


Don’t Stick with Outdated Practices: Just as you wouldn’t use an old, inefficient lightbulb that costs 75 TL per month when you could use a new one costing 37.5 TL, don’t stick to outdated farming practices that drain your finances.

Don’t Neglect Regular Maintenance: Failing to maintain your equipment can lead to breakdowns and costly repairs. Regularly servicing your machinery might cost a few hundred TL but could prevent a breakdown that could cost several thousand.

Don’t Overlook Small Savings: Even small changes can add up to significant savings over time. 


Investing in energy-efficient equipment can result in considerable cost savings over time. It’s a long-term investment towards sustainability and profitability of your farm.

Effective waste management can turn a cost (disposal) into a profit (fertilizer, energy). It’s also more sustainable and environmentally friendly, which can be a selling point for eco-conscious consumers.

Old practices and technologies often involve higher costs and lower efficiency. Adopting new technologies and practices can help you increase efficiency, reduce costs, and stay competitive in the market.

Regular maintenance prevents equipment breakdown, which can lead to costly repairs and lost productivity. A well-maintained machine operates more efficiently and lasts longer, saving money in the long run.

Regular Health Check-ups and Vaccinations

Just like children need regular check-ups and vaccines to stay healthy, cows also need frequent veterinary check-ups and vaccinations. If you spend $200 on veterinary bills and vaccinations each month and this keeps your 100 cows healthy, it’s only costing you $2 per cow for the month.

Schedule Regular Vet Visits: Just like humans, cows need routine check-ups to ensure they’re in good health. These visits can help catch any health issues early before they become serious problems. For example, a monthly check-up might cost around 500 TL, but it could prevent an illness that could cost several thousand TL in lost production and treatment costs.

Invest in Preventive Care: Regular vaccinations and deworming treatments are essential for maintaining the health of your dairy herd. This might cost around 300 TL per cow per year, but it can prevent diseases that can severely impact milk production.

Educate Yourself and Your Staff: Understand the signs of common diseases and conditions that can affect cows. The more knowledgeable you and your staff are, the quicker you can react if a cow becomes ill.


Don’t neglect Your Herd’s Health: Skipping check-ups or vaccinations as a cost-saving measure could lead to severe consequences down the line. An illness that costs 5,000 TL to treat might have been preventable with a 500 TL vaccine.

Don’t ignore Advice from Your Vet: Your vet is a valuable resource, so don’t disregard their advice. If they recommend a certain vaccine or treatment, it’s usually for a good reason.

Don’t Delay Treatment: If a cow shows signs of illness, get it checked out immediately. Delaying treatment can lead to worse health outcomes for the cow and potentially higher treatment costs.


Healthy cows mean a thriving dairy business. Diseases can quickly spread in a herd, leading to a significant decrease in milk production and potentially devastating economic losses.


Moreover, by feeding your cows with better-quality feed, you’re keeping them healthier. This means fewer visits from the vet, which can be quite expensive.

In the end, while the better feed has a higher price tag, it’s a wise investment. It’s like buying the more expensive but long-lasting pair of shoes. Your cows will be healthier, produce more milk, and that means more income for you in the long run.Good feed now is money in your pocket later.

Strategies for Dairy Farmers to Sustain Milk Production in Challenging Economic Periods

Strategies for Dairy Farmers to Sustain Milk Production in Challenging Economic Periods

In challenging economic periods, dairy farmers face the task of sustaining milk production while navigating financial uncertainties. To achieve this, they can employ various strategies. First, optimizing herd health through regular veterinary check-ups and a balanced diet ensures healthy cows and increased productivity. Effective reproductive management, including accurate record-keeping and timely calving, maintains a consistent milk supply. Attention to milk quality and hygiene is crucial to meet regulatory standards and consumer demands. Managing input costs by evaluating expenses and seeking cost-saving measures helps maintain profitability. Additionally, exploring value-added opportunities, such as producing dairy products with higher profit margins, expands revenue streams. By implementing these strategies, dairy farmers can mitigate the impact of challenging economic periods, sustain milk production, and secure the long-term viability of their operations.

Why Calf Cough is an Unreliable Early Warning Sign for Respiratory Diseases in Calves

Why Calf Cough is an Unreliable Early Warning Sign for Respiratory Diseases in Calves

Early detection and treatment of respiratory diseases in calves is crucial for minimizing damage to their respiratory system and ensuring their maximum production potential.

However, relying solely on calf cough to diagnose such diseases is not an effective early warning tool, as research from the US has suggested. Veterinary epidemiologist, Terri Ollivett, has pioneered an approach called WeanClean, which involves using lung ultrasonography to check calves for lung lesions before clinical symptoms are likely to be displayed. By carrying out ultrasounds at four strategic points, this approach aims to measure lung disease at weaning and administer treatment if necessary, so that producers can wean their animals with clean and healthy lungs. The use of ultrasound scanning as an effective tool for early detection and treatment of respiratory diseases in calves highlights the need to go beyond calf cough as an early warning sign.

ProMix in Animal Feeding: The Advantages and Applications

ProMix in Animal Feeding: The Advantages and Applications

ProMix in Animal Feeding: The Advantages and Applications

ProMix is a popular blend of soilless growing media that has revolutionized how plants are grown. But did you know that ProMix also has applications in animal feeding science? In this blog post, we will explore the advantages and uses of ProMix in animal feeding.

Promix is a complementary feed produced to enable businesses with sufficient amounts of their own barley to obtain a feed equivalent to Armoni. By mixing 1kg of Promix with 1kg of crushed barley, 2kg of a feed similar to Armoni can be obtained. The daily amount to be given varies according to the quality and characteristics of the roughage used.

Top tips for improving your calving setup

Top tips for improving your calving setup

Calving can be a stressful period fraught with danger but simple improvements every dairy and beef farm can make to their existing setup can minimise risk to the operator and the animal. Whether it is investing in a restraining yoke and gate for assisted calvings or...